What are the five critical thinking skills?

Whether youre aiming to improve your performance at work or simply trying to live a more fulfilling life, youll need a variety of hard and soft skills to move the needle. Some skil

What are the five critical thinking skills?

Whether youre aiming to improve your performance at work or simply trying to live a more fulfilling life, youll need a variety of hard and soft skills to move the needle. Some skills come naturally to some people, while others need to develop them actively.

One of these skills is critical thinking. But critical thinking itself is made up of several types of skills that contribute to solving problems more effectively.

Lets explore the different types of critical thinking skills and how you can start improving them to level up your career.

What is critical thinking?

Critical thinking is the ability to analyze facts and form a judgment. It is a form of emotional intelligence.

Someone with critical thinking skills can think clearly and rationally when the situation demands it. It allows them to perform problem-solving and decision-making more effectively.

As a result, you can look further than what you see at face value. Youre able to analyze what you see from a situation and gain some insight that goes further than whats obvious to anyone from the outside.

Critical thinking also requires being able to understand the logical connection between two or more ideas or concepts. For example, a team working on a companys pricing strategy needs to think critically about several concepts.

Both the marketing and sales teams must work together. They need to analyze how to maximize sales. But they need to do so while also meeting profit goals. Its important to understand the logical connection between sales strategy and marketing logistics. Its the only way to get a good outcome.

Critical thinking is different from creative thinking. Creative thinking is the ability to generate brand new, innovative ideas. On the other hand, critical thinking requires you to carefully and logically analyze what information is given to you. Both are important to maximize results in any given situation.

5 characteristics of critical thinking

What defines critical thinking? How does it affect the decision-making process? Here are five characteristics that make up the ability to think critically.

1. Dispositions

Critical thinkers have specific traits that allow them to think the way they do. Some people are predisposed to these traits, while others need to develop them actively.

Some of these dispositions include:

  • Open-mindedness
  • Respecting evidence and reasoning
  • Being able to consider different perspectives and points of view: in other words, having cognitive flexibility
  • Not being stuck in one position
  • Skepticism
  • Clarity and precision

2. Argument

Good critical thinkers need to make solid arguments.

An argument is making a statement aided by supporting evidence. Its important to use well thought-out arguments when youre in a constructive conflict. When analyzing a situation critically, youll need to make several arguments in your own mind to come to a judgment.

3. Reasoning

In addition to arguments, critical thinking also requires inferring conclusions. From the facts and arguments presented to you, you need to use reasoning skills to come to a logical conclusion.

This conclusion will determine the best course of action to take.

4. Criteria

Critical thinking is sometimes a matter of discerning truth from fiction. Not all facts presented to you may have the same level of truth. Certain conditions need to be met for something to be considered believable, and a critical thinker needs to be able to understand that.

5. Metacognition

Metacognition is the ability to think about your own thinking. Critical thinkers should be able to analyze their thoughts so that they can judge whether or not theyve thought everything through. This helps them come up with better hypotheses.

What are critical thinking skills, and why are they important?

The critical thinking skills definition is: soft skills that help you in the critical thinking process. Developing these skills can improve your ability to think critically.

Critical thinking skills are considered one of many durable skills in the workplace. Many of these are soft skills that are also useful in other situations.

According to research by America Succeeds, critical thinking is in the top five most requested durable skills in job postings. Those top five durable skills get requested 2.6x more often than the top five hard skills. This goes to show that soft skills like critical thinking skills are in demand in the workplace.

Critical thinking skills are important for several reasons. These include helping you work independently and solve problems. Not all positions require ongoing critical thinking. But, those skills definitely matter to anyone who wants to uplevel their career. And even the most easygoing positions require at least some level of critical thinking skills.

For example, working as an accountant can be straightforward in most cases. But it may require critical thinking skills. For instance, what if certain expenses arent easily distributed in simple categories? Without critical thinking skills, an accountant will struggle to work independently and solve problems on their own.

Critical thinking abilities also matter in everyday life. Having a foundation for critical thinking can help you analyze several possible solutions for problems that pop up in the home. It can also help you:

  • Analyze different viewpoints
  • Come up with the best solution for complex problems
  • Become a better learner

6 key critical thinking skills

The key critical thinking skills are identifying biases, inference, research, identification, curiosity, and judging relevance.

Lets explore these six critical thinking skills you should learn and why theyre so important to the critical thinking process.

1. Identifying biases

This critical thinking skill is necessary for metacognition, which is the fifth characteristic of critical thinking. It involves knowing when others have a cognitive bias and when you have one yourself.

Biases can influence how someone understands the facts presented to them. But when youre aware of those biases, you can question yourself on those biases and consider other points of view.

Identifying biases is especially important for people who make hiring decisions. Thats because biases against groups of minorities can lead to inequalities in the workplace when not identified.

For example, imagine a hiring manager comparing two resumes. Their gut feeling could guide them to discount one of the resumes due to a bias against the opposite gender. But lets say this hiring manager realizes they have this bias. They can then question themselves on whether or not this bias is influencing their judgment.

2. Inference

Inference is the ability to draw conclusions based on the information you have. Without inference, it can be difficult to take action once youve analyzed the facts presented to you. Processing information is key to coming up with a reasoned judgment.

For example, lets go back to the accountant struggling to assign the correct category to a business expense. They can analyze other similar situations and infer the most logical category based on that information.

3. Research

Before you analyze facts and infer a conclusion, you need to find out what those facts are. Researching skills allow you to discover facts and figures to make an argument.

Not all situations will have the required information available to you. Researching skills are necessary to dig into a situation and gather the information you need to think critically.

Some situations dont require further research. For example, a first responder who arrives on the scene of an automobile accident wont perform further research. Theyll have to analyze what they see in front of them and decide which injuries are the most urgent to care for.

On the other hand, someone performing a market analysis will need to research competitors and gather information before coming up with an opinion.

4. Identification

Identification is different from inference and research. It involves being able to identify a problem but also whats influencing that problem.

In short, identification is necessary for someone to realize that they need to think critically about something. Without proper identification skills, it will be difficult for someone to know when its time to analyze a situation.

For example, lets say youre entering numbers in a spreadsheet. The numbers arent coming out as they usually do. Without identification skills, you could easily keep going without realizing theres an issue. But when you identify whats going on, you can see that something is broken in the spreadsheets formula.

Only once you identify the fact that the formula is broken can you start analyzing whats going on to solve the issue.

5. Curiosity

Dont be afraid to question everything and explore what youre curious about. Thats because intellectual curiosity is a valuable skill, especially when it comes to critical thinking.

One way to practice curiosity is to adopt a beginners mindset. When you come into every situation with the mindset of a beginner, youre able to keep an open mind. Youll be able to perceive things you may not have noticed when keeping your mind closed.

6. Judging relevance

Not all information is equally pertinent. In order to make a critical judgment, its important to be able to judge the relevance of the information you have.

Take, for instance, basic online researching skills. You have access to a plethora of information on virtually every topic imaginable. But performing online research requires you to constantly judge the relevance of what you see.

Without judging relevance, youd spend too much time on details that dont matter as much for the final desired outcome. But when youre able to discern whats most pertinent, you can give that information more weight as youre thinking critically.

Critical thinking skills: a real-life example

So what would critical thinking skills look like in a real-life situation?

Lets imagine youre working in software quality assurance (QA) as a team lead. But every time your team needs to enter bug regression, everyone gets bottlenecked because you must manually populate the spreadsheet used for the regression. While you do this task, your team cannot be productive without you.

This process happens once a week and easily wastes half an hour for each team member.

First, you must identify whats going on. The team gets bottlenecked because only you, as the team lead, can access the information required to fill in the regression spreadsheet.

Next, you can research information. You can inquire to higher-ups about the reason why only you have access to this information. You can also speak to other teams about what potential solutions theyve come up with to solve this problem.

Once youve done your research, its time to analyze the information and judge relevance. Some teams have solutions that dont apply to you, so that information isnt relevant anymore.

Figure out if there are any personal biases before you analyze your information.

For example, its possible that you dont get along with one of the other team leads. As a result, you could discount the information theyve given you. But by identifying this bias, you can look past your personal opinion of this person and see how valuable their solution is.

Based on what youve analyzed, its time to brainstorm and come up with a solution. You realize that creating a simple, automated script will save your teams time. And it will do so without consuming too many resources from the engineering department.

Next, present your solution to your manager. Explain how you came to this conclusion.

Now, lets say your spreadsheet automation solution is approved. Its important to go back and analyze what happens after implementing the solution. But only do this once the spreadsheet has been in place for long enough to gather plenty of information.

Heres an example. You could realize that the solution did solve the bottleneck. But, the script also slows down the spreadsheet and makes it difficult to work with. This would require you to go back to the drawing board and start the process all over again.

13 ways to start thinking critically

Want to start improving your own critical thinking skill sets? Heres how you can improve critical thinking skills using 13 techniques:

  1. Play games that require critical thinking skills
  2. Ask more questions, even basic ones
  3. Question your assumptions
  4. Develop your technical skills so that you can identify problems more easily
  5. Find ways to solve more problems (at work and at home)
  6. Become aware of your mental processes, like the availability heuristic
  7. Think for yourself: dont adopt other peoples opinions without questioning them first
  8. Seek out diversity of thought
  9. Start developing foresight
  10. Try active listening
  11. Weigh the consequences of different actions before you act
  12. Seek a mentor who can help you develop these skills
  13. Get professional coaching

How to improve your critical thinking skills

Critical thinking skills arent always easy to develop. But its much easier to start thinking critically when you have someone to work with. Try a custom BetterUp demo to see how a coach can help you develop your critical thinking skills today.

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